Systematic review of determinants of mortality in high frequency oscillatory ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome
University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands
Critical Care 2006, 10:R34 doi:10.1186/cc4824Published: 20 February 2006
Mechanical ventilation has been shown to cause lung injury and to have a significant impact on mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Theoretically, high frequency oscillatory ventilation seems an ideal lung protective ventilation mode. This review evaluates determinants of mortality during use of high frequency oscillatory ventilation.
PubMed was searched for literature reporting randomized trials and cohort studies of high frequency ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Data on mortality and determinants were extracted for patients treated with high frequency oscillatory ventilation. Linear regression analyses were conducted to produce graphical representations of adjusted effects of determinants of mortality.
Cohorts of patients treated with high frequency oscillatory ventilation from two randomized trials and seven observational studies were included. Data from cohorts comparing survivors with non-survivors showed differences in age (42.3 versus 51.2 years), prior time on conventional mechanical ventilation (4.0 versus 6.2 days), APACHE II score (22.4 versus 26.1), pH (7.33 versus 7.26) and oxygenation index (26 versus 34). Each extra day on conventional ventilation was associated with a 20% higher mortality adjusted for age and APACHE II score (relative risk (RR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–1.25). However, this association was confounded by differences in pH (pH adjusted RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.73–1.46). Oxygenation index seemed to have an independent effect on mortality (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.95–1.28).
Prolonged ventilation on conventional mechanical ventilation prior to high frequency oscillatory ventilation was not related to mortality. Oxygenation index was a determinant of mortality independent of other disease severity markers.