Table 1

Case mix for admissions with community-acquired pneumonia, overall and by year of admission: 1995 to 1999 versus 2000 to 2004

All admissions

Admissions 1995 to 1999

Admissions 2000 to 2004

P value


Admissions, n (%)

17,869 (5.55)

5,333 (1.65)

12,536 (3.89)

Mean (SD) age, years

61.6 (17.6)

60.2 (17.5)

62.2 (17.6)

<0.001

Age, n (%)

<16 years

336 (1.9)

116 (2.2)

220 (1.8)

16 to 24 years

475 (2.7)

144 (2.7)

331 (2.6)

25 to 34 years

830 (4.6)

298 (5.6)

532 (4.2)

35 to 44 years

1,300 (7.3)

385 (7.2)

915 (7.3)

45 to 54 years

2,184 (12.2)

686 (12.8)

1,498 (12.0)

55 to 64 years

3,453 (19.3)

1,087 (20.4)

2,366 (18.9)

65 to 74 years

5,034 (28.2)

1,632 (30.6)

3,402 (27.1)

75 to 84 years

3,837 (21.5)

916 (17.2)

2,921 (23.3)

85+ years

420 (2.4)

69 (1.3)

351 (2.8)

Gender male, n (%)

10,271 (57.5)

3,067 (57.5)

7,204 (57.5)

0.954

Source of admission, n (%)

<0.001

Ward, same hospital

9,583 (53.6)

2,941 (55.2)

6,645 (53.0)

A&E, same hospital, clinic or home

2,888 (16.2)

788 (14.8)

2,100 (16.8)

Other intermediate care area, same hospital

649 (3.6)

162 (3.0)

487 (3.9)

HDU, same hospital

1,867 (10.5)

370 (6.9)

1,497 (11.9)

ICU, same hospital

198 (1.1)

77 (1.5)

121 (1.0)

ICU, other hospital

1,355 (7.6)

474 (8.9)

881 (7.0)

HDU, other hospital

157 (0.9)

44 (0.8)

113 (0.9)

Other hospital (not ICU or HDU)

1,169 (6.5)

477 (8.9)

692 (5.5)

Past medical history, n (%)

Severe liver problems

219 (1.2)

58 (1.1)

161 (1.3)

0.274

Very severe cardiovascular disease

334 (1.9)

96 (1.8)

238 (1.9)

0.656

Steroid treatment

535 (3.0)

183 (3.4)

352 (2.8)

0.025

Severe respiratory problems

1,265 (7.1)

465 (8.7)

800 (6.4)

<0.001

Chronic renal replacement therapy

231 (1.3)

87 (1.6)

144 (1.2)

0.009

Primary reason for admission, n (%)

<0.001

Viral pneumonia

361 (2.0)

164 (3.1)

197 (1.6)

Bacterial pneumonia

6,972 (49.0)

2,270 (42.6)

4,702 (37.5)

Pneumonia, no organism isolated

10,536 (59.0)

2,899 (54.3)

7,637 (60.9)

Secondary reason for admission, n (%)

<0.001

Pre-existing

Obstructive airways disease

1,309 (7.3)

423 (7.9)

886 (7.1)

Trauma

119 (0.7)

32 (0.6)

87 (0.7)

Diabetes mellitus

117 (0.7)

49 (0.9)

68 (0.5)

Chronic neuromuscular disorders

99 (0.6)

32 (0.6)

67 (0.5)

Alcoholic cirrhosis

124 (0.7)

24 (0.5)

100 (0.8)

Chronic renal failure

184 (1.0)

49 (0.9)

135 (1.1)

Pulmonary fibrosis or fibrosing alveolitis

112 (0.6)

25 (0.5)

87 (0.7)

Asthma attack

176 (1.0)

62 (1.2)

114 (0.9)

Inhalation pneumonitis (gastrointestinal contents)

56 (0.3)

12 (0.2)

44 (0.4)

Occurring as CAP complication

Septic shock/septicaemia

1,223 (6.8)

389 (7.3)

834 (6.6)

Pleural effusion

122 (0.7)

17 (0.3)

105 (0.8)

Could be pre-existing or complication

Acute renal failure

877 (4.9)

238 (4.5)

639 (5.1)

Cardiac dysrhythmia

246 (1.4)

58 (1.1)

188 (1.5)

Cardiac failure

643 (3.6)

213 (4.0)

430 (3.4)

Cardiogenic shock

59 (0.3)

22 (0.4)

37 (0.3)

Acute myocardial infarction

218 (1.2)

55 (1.0)

163 (1.3)

Pulmonary embolus (thrombus)

55 (0.3)

23 (0.4)

32 (0.3)

Status epilepticus or uncontrolled seizures

91 (0.5)

32 (0.6)

59 (0.5)

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ARDS)

152 (0.9)

45 (0.8)

107 (0.9)

Other/none

11,887 (66.5)

3,533 (66.3)

8,354 (66.6)

CPR prior to admission, n (%)

1,080 (6.1)

396 (7.5)

684 (5.5)

<0.001

Mean (SD) SBP at admission, mmHg

123.8 (30.9)

123.5 (32.2)

123.9 (30.4)

0.486

Mean (SD) heart rate at admission, bpm

108.6 (24.6)

110.1 (24.8)

108.0 (24.5)

<0.001

Mechanically ventilated at admission, n (%)

9,751 (54.6)

3,009 (56.4)

6,742 (53.8)

0.001

Sedated or paralysed and sedated for whole of first 24 hours, n (%)

7,737 (43.3)

2,676 (50.2)

5,061 (40.4)

<0.001

Median (IQR) lowest total GCS if not sedated/paralysed

15 (11–15)

15 (11–15)

15 (11–15)

0.249

Median (IQR) highest non-ventilated respiratory rate, breaths/minute

32 (26–40)

32 (25–40)

33 (26–40)

0.030

Median (IQR) lowest PaO2, kPa

9.0 (7.7–10.4)

9.1 (7.7–10.6)

8.9 (7.7–10.4)

0.023

Median (IQR) lowest pH

7.3 (7.2–7.4)

7.3 (7.2–7.4)

7.3 (7.2–7.4)

0.002

Median (IQR) associated PaCO2, kPa

6.7 (5.3–8.6)

6.5 (5.2–8.3)

6.7 (5.2–8.3)

<0.001

Mean (SD) APACHE II APSa

15.31 (6.34)

15.09 (6.25)

15.40 (6.38)

0.003

Mean (SD) APACHE II scorea

19.63 (6.89)

19.37 (6.83)

19.74 (6.91)

<0.001


aAPACHE II exclusions: age <16 years; ICU stay <8 hours; readmissions within same hospital stay; transfers from another ICU; admissions following coronary artery bypass grafting; admissions for primary burns. A&E, accident and emergency; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; APS, Acute Physiology Score; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CAP, community-acquired pneumonia; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; GCS, Glasgow Coma score; HDU, high dependency unit; ICU, intensive care unit; IQR, interquartile range; PaCO2, arterial carbon dioxide tension; PaO2, arterial oxygen tension; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SD, standard deviation.

Woodhead et al. Critical Care 2006 10(Suppl 2):S1   doi:10.1186/cc4927

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