Table 1

Cytokine/chemokine biomarkers identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

Sepsis marker

Evaluated in experimental studies

Evaluated in clinical studies

Evaluated as a prognostic factor

Comment


GRO-alpha [49,50]

C (m)

Higher in septic shock than in sepsis

High mobility group-box 1 protein (HMGB-1) [51,52]

C

No difference between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

IL-1 receptor antagonist [53-55]

A

Correlation with SOFA score

IL-1β [56,57]

A

Increased in septic compared with non-septic individuals

IL-2 [58]

B

Increased in parallel with disease severity

IL-4 [59]

C (s)

Increased levels associated with development of sepsis

IL-6 [48,60]

B

√*

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

IL-8 [61,62]

B

√***

Prediction of MOF, DIC

IL-10 [63-65]

B

√**

Higher in septic shock than sepsis, distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

IL-12 [66,67]

C

Predictive of lethal outcome from postoperative sepsis

IL-13 [68,69]

B

Higher in septic shock than sepsis

IL-18 [37,70]

B(s)

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 and- 2 [71,72]

A

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) [42,73]

A

√**

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and 2 [42,74]

B

√*

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Osteopontin [75]

B

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

RANTES [76,77]

B

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

TNF [78,79]

C

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days in patients with septic shock


*sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; **sensitivity of more than 90% but specificity of less than 90%; ***sensitivity and specificity more than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only; (m), medical patients only.

DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulopathy; MOF: multiple organ failure; SOFA: sequential organ failure assessment.

Pierrakos and Vincent Critical Care 2010 14:R15   doi:10.1186/cc8872

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