Table 3

Receptor biomarkers identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

Sepsis marker

Evaluated in experimental studies

Evaluated in clinical studies

Evaluated as a prognostic factor

Comment


CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 2 [95]

CCR 3 [96]

C

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

C5L2 [97]

B

Predicted development of MOF

CRTh2 [98]

C

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Fas receptor (soluble) [99]

B(m)

Predicted development of MOF

Fc-gamma RIII [100]

A

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls, correlated with APACHE II score

FLT-1 (soluble) [101,102]

C

Correlated with APACHE II score

GP130 [103]

A

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

IL-2 receptor (soluble) [104]

C

Predicted development of septic shock

Group II phospholipase A2 (PLA2-II) (soluble) [105,106]

B

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

RAGE (soluble) [107]

B

√*

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

ST2 (soluble, IL-1 receptor) [108]

A(s)

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 [109]

B

Increased in septic compared with non-septic critically ill patients

Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 [110]

TREM-1 (soluble) [111,112]

C

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

TNF-receptor (soluble) [113]

B

Predicted development of MOF

Urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) (soluble) [114]

C(m)

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days


*sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only; (m), medical patients only.

APACHE: acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; MOF: multiple organ failure; TREM: triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells; RAGE: receptor for advanced glycation end-products.

Pierrakos and Vincent Critical Care 2010 14:R15   doi:10.1186/cc8872

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