Table 4

Coagulation biomarkers identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

Sepsis marker

Evaluated in experimental studies

Evaluated in clinical studies

Evaluated as a prognostic factor

Comment


Antithrombin [115]

B

√**

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) [35]

C

Correlated with MOF score in patients with sepsis and DIC, high negative predictive value

D-dimers, TAT, F1.2, PT [116]

C

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with APACHE II score

Fibrin [36]

C

Increased in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia

PF-4 [117]

A

Predicted response to therapy

Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 [118,119]

B

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, predicted development of MOF

Protein C and S [120,121]

C

√*

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Thrombomodulin [122,123]

C

Predicted development of MOF, DIC, and response to therapy


*sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; **sensitivity of more than 90% but specificity of less than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients.

APCHE: acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulopathy; MOF: multiple organ failure; PT: prothrombin time; PF: platelet factor; TAT: thrombin-antithrombin complex.

Pierrakos and Vincent Critical Care 2010 14:R15   doi:10.1186/cc8872

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