Table 5

Biomarkers related to vascular endothelial damage identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

Sepsis marker

Evaluated in experimental studies

Evaluated in clinical studies

Evaluated as a prognostic factor

Comment


ADAMTS-13 [124,125]

B

Decreased in septic patients with DIC compared with no DIC

Angiopoietin (1 and 2) [126]

B

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Endocan [127,128]

B

Predicted development of septic shock

Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM)-1 (cellular and soluble) [129,130]

B(s)

√*

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Endothelial progenitor cells (cEPC) [131]

B

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 (soluble) [38]

B(m)

Laminin [132]

A

Increased in sepsis compared with non-infected controls

Neopterin [133,134]

C

√*

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB [135]

B

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days in patients with severe sepsis

E-Selectin (cellular and soluble) [123,136]

C

Predicted development of MOF, correlated with SAPS score

L-Selectin (soluble) [137]

C

√*

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

P-Selectin [138]

Vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 [139,140]

C

Predicted development of MOF

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [141,142]

A

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, predicted development of MOF

von Willebrand factor and antigen [143,144]

B(m)

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, predicted development of acute lung injury


*sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only; (m), medical patients only.

DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulopathy; MOF: meultiple organ failure; SAPS: simplified acute physiology score.

Pierrakos and Vincent Critical Care 2010 14:R15   doi:10.1186/cc8872

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