Table 6

Biomarkers related to vaosdilation identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

Sepsis marker

Evaluated in experimental studies

Evaluated in clinical studies

Evaluated as a prognostic factor

Comment


Adrenomedullin and pro-adrenomedullin [145,146]

B

√*

Predicted development of septic shock

Anandamide [147]

A

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (activity and serum) [148,149]

B

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

2-arachidonoylglycerol [150]

A

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

Copeptin [151]

C(m)

√*

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with APACHE II score

C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) [152]

A

Increased in patients with septic shock compared with healthy controls

Cycling nucleotides [153,154]

A(m)

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Elastin [155]

B

Decreased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

cGRP [156,157]

C(s)

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with APACHE II score

47 kD HK [158]

B(m)

Correlated with severity of sepsis

Neuropeptide Y [159,160]

A

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

Nitric oxide (NO), nitrate, nitrite [161,162]

B

Predicted development of septic shock

Substance P [156,163]

C(s)

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days (predictive only in the late phase of sepsis, 2 days before death)

Tetrahydrobiopterin [164,165]

A

Increased in sepsis compared with non-septic critically ill patients

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) [166,167]

A

Increased in tissue samples from patients with peritonitis compared with no peritonitis


*sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only; (m), medical patients only.

APACHE: acute physiology and chornic health evaluation; cGRP: calcitonin gene-related peptide; HK: high-molecular weight kininogen.

Pierrakos and Vincent Critical Care 2010 14:R15   doi:10.1186/cc8872

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