Table 7

Biomarkers of organ dysfunction identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

Sepsis marker

Evaluated in experimental studies

Evaluated in clinical studies

Evaluated as a prognostic factor

Comment


Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) [168,169]

C

√*

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) [170-172]

B

√**

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated to APACHE II score

Carbomyl phosphate synthase (CPS)-1 [173]

Endothelin-1 and pro-endothelin-1 [174-177]

B

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with SOFA score

Filterable cardiodepressant substance (FCS) [178]

Gc-globulin [179]

C(s)

Predicted development of MOF

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) [180]

B

Increased in septic shock compared with healthy controls

alpha glutathione S-transferase (GST) [181]

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (cellular and soluble) [182,183]

C(m)

Predicted response to therapy

MEGX test [184,185]

A

Correlated with SAPS II score

Myocardial angiotensin II [186]

NSE [187]

B

Correlated with SOFA scores

Pancreatitis-associated protein-I [188]

Pre B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) [189]

A

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

Protein S-100b [187,190]

B

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with SOFA score

Surfactant protein (A, B, C, D) [191,192]

A

Increased in sepsis compared with healthy controls

Troponin [193]

B

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with APACHE II score


*sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; **sensitivity of more than 90% but specificity of less than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only; (m), medical patients only.

APACHE: acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; MEGX: monoethylglycinexylidide; MOF: multiple organ failure; NSE: neuron-specific enolase; SAPS: simplified acute physiology score; SOFA: sequential organ failure assessment.

Pierrakos and Vincent Critical Care 2010 14:R15   doi:10.1186/cc8872

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