Table 8

Acute phase protein biomarkers identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

Sepsis Marker

Evaluated in experimental studies

Evaluated in clinical studies

Evaluated as a prognostic factor

Comment


Serum amyloid A (SAA) [194,195]

B(s)

Correlated with CRP in patients with septic shock

Ceruloplasmin [196,197]

A

Predicted liver dysfunction in patients with sepsis

C-reactive protein (CRP) [11,198,199]

C

√*

Predicted response to therapy

Ferritin [200]

B(m)

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with SOFA score

Alpha1-acid glycoprotein [201,202]

B

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with SOFA score

Hepcidin [203]

B

Incraesed in sepsis compared with healthy controls and patients with chronic renal failure

Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) [39,204]

C(s)

Higher in sepsis compared with no sepsis, no prognostic value

Procalcitonin [21,134,205]

C

√*

Increased in infected compared with non-infected patients

Pentraxin 3 [206,207]

C

Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, correlated with APACHE II score


*sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only; (m), medical patients only.

APACHE: acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; SOFA: sequential organ failure assessment.

Pierrakos and Vincent Critical Care 2010 14:R15   doi:10.1186/cc8872

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