Table 2

Grading evidence and recommendations (adapted from the GRADE system)

Notes

Symbol


Quality of Evidence

High

Large, high quality randomized control trials. We are confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect.

A

Moderate

Limited or conflicting data from randomized control trials. The true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different.

B

Low

Observational studies or very small randomized control trials. The true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect.

C

Very low

Expert opinion. The estimate of effect is very uncertain, and often will be far from the truth.

D

Grading Recommendationa

Strong

'We recommend'

Conditions for which there is evidence and/or general agreement that a given procedure or treatment is beneficial, useful and effective

1

Weak

'We suggest'

Conditions for which there is conflicting evidence and/or divergence of opinion about the usefulness/efficacy of a procedure or treatment

2


a'Not Graded' was used to provide guidance where the topic does not allow adequate application of evidence.

Nadim et al. Critical Care 2012 16:R23   doi:10.1186/cc11188

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