Table 7

Extracorporeal liver support system

Technique


Artificial (Non-cell based)

Hemoperfusion [96-101]

Removal of protein-bound toxins by circulating blood over a sorbent material

Hemodiabsorption [102-105]

Hybrid process in which blood is passed through a hemodialyzer containing a suspension of sorbent material, such as charcoal or resin, in the extracapillary space

Plasma Exchange [106-109]

Exchange of plasma volume

Plasmapheresis [110]

Plasma is separated from the cellular blood components and replaced with normal plasma constituents, allowing the removal of circulating toxins and waste products.

Plasma Filtration [111-117]

Removes a specific plasma fraction containing substances within a specific molecular weight.

Albumin dialysis

Albumin containing dialysate using an anion exchange resin and active charcoal adsorption allowing albumin-bound toxins in the blood to cross the membrane and bind to the albumin. Water soluble toxins are dialyzed from the albumin circuit by a standard hemodialysis or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machine.

• Single Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD) 118-121]

• Prometheus [122-124]

• Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) [125-131]

Bioartificial (Cell-based) [132-134]

Porcine

• HepatAssist

• Bioartificial Liver Support System (BLSS)

• Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support (MELS)

• Hybrid-Bioartificial Liver (HBAL)

• Radial Flow Bioreactor (RFB)

• TECA-Hybrid Artificial Liver Support System

• AMC-Bioartificial Liver

Human

• Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD)


Nadim et al. Critical Care 2012 16:R23   doi:10.1186/cc11188

Open Data