Enoxaparin sodium prevents intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction in endotoxemic rats
1 Department of Anesthesiology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan S. Road, Taipei, Taiwan
2 Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 7, Chung-Shan S. Road, Taipei, Taiwan
3 Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen Ai Road, Sec 1, Taipei, Taiwan
4 Department of Traumatology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan S. Road, Taipei, Taiwan
Critical Care 2012, 16:R59 doi:10.1186/cc11303Published: 16 April 2012
During severe sepsis or septic shock, activation of the inflammatory and coagulatory systems can result in microcirculatory dysfunction as well as microvascular thrombosis, culminating in multiple organ dysfunction and death. Enoxaparin can inhibit factor Xa and attenuate endothelial damage. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of enoxaparin on intestinal microcirculation in endotoxemic rats.
Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into the following three groups: sham operated (OP); lipopolysaccharide (LPS); and LPS + Enoxaparin group. The rats received a midline laparotomy to exteriorize a segment of terminal ileum for microcirculation examination by full-field laser perfusion imager and sidestream dark field video microscope on mucosa, muscle, and Peyer's patch. In the LPS and LPS + Enoxaparin groups, 15 mg/kg LPS was administered intravenously to induce endotoxemia, and 400 IU/kg enoxaparin sodium was also administered in the LPS + Enoxaparin group.
At 240 minutes, the mean arterial pressure was higher in the LPS + Enoxaparin group than in the LPS group (93 ± 9 versus 64 ± 16 mm Hg, P < 0.001). Microcirculatory blood flow intensity was higher in the LPS + Enoxaparin group than in the LPS group as follows: mucosa (1085 ± 215 versus 617 ± 214 perfusion unit [PU], P < 0.001); muscle (760 ± 202 versus 416 ± 223 PU, P = 0.001); and Peyer's patch (1,116 ± 245 versus 570 ± 280 PU, P < 0.001). Enoxaparin inhibited LPS-induced reduction in perfused small vessel density and increase in heterogeneity of microcirculation.
Enoxaparin can prevent intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction in endotoxemic rats by preventing microvascular thrombosis formation and maintaining normal mean arterial pressure.