Schematic and simplified presentation of coagulation, fibrinolysis and anticoagulant pathways. The coagulation cascade is started through activation of tissue factor (TF)-factor VII (FVIIa) complex. Several coagulation factors accelerate the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. Activated protein C (APC) can inactivate coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. Antithrombin (AT) serves to block the action of multiple coagulation factors (for example, Xa and IIa). Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) inhibits stepwise the activation of coagulation factors. The fibrinolytic system is designed to degrade clots and fibrin degradation products (FDP) are formed. The main inhibitor of the plasminogen activators is plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). +: stimulating effect; -: inhibiting effect. Adapted and modified from Tuinman et al. .
Tuinman et al. Critical Care 2012 16:R70 doi:10.1186/cc11325