Relation between proteinuria and acute kidney injury in patients with severe burns
- Equal contributors
1 Institute of Burn Research, Southwest Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Chongqing Key Lab for Disease Proteomics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China
2 Burn Department, People Hospital of Changshou District, Chongqing 401220, PR China
3 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042, PR China
4 Department of Statistics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 40038, PR China
Critical Care 2012, 16:R172 doi:10.1186/cc11649Published: 29 September 2012
Proteinuria in burn patients is common, and may be associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and adverse outcomes. We evaluated the incidences, outcomes, characteristics and determinants of proteinuria and its influence on AKI and outcomes in burn patients.
This retrospective study was carried out in a hospital's burn department. The study population consisted of patients with burn injuries admitted during a five-year period. Positive urine dipstick readings were defined as mild (± or 1+) or heavy (≥ 2+) proteinuria, and AKI was diagnosed and staged according to the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage (RIFLE) classification system. Patient characteristics, management and outcomes were evaluated for associations with proteinuria using nonparametric tests, chi-square (χ2) tests and binary logistic regression.
Of the patients admitted to the burn unit during the study period (n = 2,497), 865 (34.64%) were classified as having proteinuria. In the patients whose total burn surface areas (TBSA) were > 30% (n = 396), 271 patients (68.43%) had proteinuria and 152 of these patients (56.09%) met AKI criteria. No patients without proteinuria developed AKI. Intensive care unit (ICU) mortality rates were 0.8%, 16.67% and 30.77% (P < 0.001) in the groups with no, mild and heavy proteinuria, respectively. Logistic regression analysis identified proteinuria (OR 4.48; 95% CI, 2.824 to 7.108; P < 0.001) and sequential organ failure assessment (OR 1.383; 95% CI, 1.267 to 1.509; P < 0.001) as risk factors for AKI.
We observed a high prevalence of proteinuria in patients with severe burns (> 30% TBSA). Severely burned patients with proteinuria had a high risk of developing AKI and a poor prognosis for survival. This suggests that proteinuria should be used for identifying burn patients at risk of developing AKI.