Analgesia in the emergency department: a GRADE-based evaluation of research evidence and recommendations for practice
University of Calgary, Faculty of Medicine, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Canada
Critical Care 2013, 17:212 doi:10.1186/cc12521
This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2013 and co-published as a series in Critical Care. Other articles in the series can be found online at http://ccforum.com/series/annualupdate2013. Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901.Published: 19 March 2013
First paragraph (this article has no abstract)
Emergency physicians care for patients with pain on an extremely frequent basis [1-20]. The prevalence of pain as the presenting complaint of patients seeking emergency department (ED) care ranges from 38%  to as high as 78% . As a result, evidence-based use of analgesics should be a foundational skill of emergency physicians. However, the literature consistently reports that emergency physicians are often poor at treating pain [1,2,8,13,14,16,19,20]. Notwithstanding the prevalence of pain in the ED, many patients often report that their pain was not properly treated [3,7,20]. In addition to a compromised patient experience, sub-optimal treatment of pain will result in decreased department flow, increased wait times, more return visits to the ED, and increased hospitalization rates.