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Highly Accessed Review

Clinical review: Acid–base abnormalities in the intensive care unit – part II

Lewis J Kaplan* and Spiros Frangos

Author Affiliations

Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Section of Trauma, Surgical Critical Care and Surgical Emergencies, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

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Critical Care 2005, 9:198-203  doi:10.1186/cc2912

Published: 20 October 2004

Abstract

Acid–base abnormalities are common in the critically ill. The traditional classification of acid–base abnormalities and a modern physico-chemical method of categorizing them will be explored. Specific disorders relating to mortality prediction in the intensive care unit are examined in detail. Lactic acidosis, base excess, and a strong ion gap are highlighted as markers for increased risk of death.

Keywords:
acid–base disorders; base excess; lactic acidosis; metabolic acidosis; strong ion gap